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The actual translation depends on context. The choice is determined by whether the prepositional phrase indicates movement accusative or an unmoving state dative. During his rise to power, Adolf Hitler adopted Nietzsche's term, using it in his descriptions of an Aryan master race. It was in this context that American Jewish comic book creator Jerry Siegel encountered the term and conceived the story " The Reign of the Superman ", in which the superman not to be confused with his later superhero character is "an evil mastermind with advanced mental powers".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the German word. This article needs additional citations for verification. My thesis contributes to the research on the work of Schelling and early German idealism in at least three ways. First, it establishes the centrality of the philosophy of art in Schelling's thought, not only in the System of Transcendental Idealism , but through the entire period from to the address Uber das Verhdltnis der bildenden Kiinste zu der Natur of Second, after establishing the centrality of his philosophy of art, it re- reads Schelling's philosophical development from to through the often overlooked or underappreciated Philosophy of Art, Uber das Verhdltnis der bildenden Kiinste zu der Natur and the Stuttgart Seminars.

Third, it offers a new argument for the eclipse of the philosophy of art in Schelling's thought after Let us begin with the first point, concerning the centrality of Schelling's philosophy of art. In order to establish a measure for evaluating the continuity of his philosophy of art, I focus on demonstrating the structural features that are consistent within the period from 2 One of the central problems of previous interpretations of Schelling's philosophy of art is the lack of clear and comprehensive criteria for establishing the similarities and differences between his various presentations.

So, although the reasons vary, the standard interpretation holds that the System of Transcendental Idealism is the only text that holds art to be central to the system. While it is true that in the latter text Schelling rejects the subjective idealism of the System of Transcendental Idealism, the structural features of the philosophy of art and their relation to his metaphysics remains the same within the Philosophy of Art found in the period of absolute idealism, and in his philosophy through What philosophy constructs in the ideal, art produces in the real.

While both the natural organism and the artwork embody the same identity of real and ideal, of necessity andfreedom,the work of art overcomes these oppositions through the identity of conscious and unconscious production, whereas the organism's activity is unconscious. Artistic production has a socio-political task: it aims to overcome the fragmentary condition of modernity through a new mythology and artistic renewal. All of these features are first outlined in the System of Transcendental Idealism and maintained through As I argue, these three conditions can be understood in relation to Schelling's ideas of freedom and nature.

The philosophy of art emerges as a solution to the problem of how to show that human activity- and this includes philosophy- can be objectified within the real world. Thus during this time, for Schelling, artistic production exhibited a power or ethic of free activity that was 'more free than freedom' as freedom was conceived, in Kant and Fichte, as conformity to the moral law.

Though he thinks freedom- like Kant and Fichte- as an infinite approximation to a regulative ideal, Schelling adds that artistic activity actually produces its own law, as beauty, in the harmony of form and content of the work, and in doing so, it exhibits the identity of freedom and necessity, the self and nature, and the ideal and the real. Art presents the absolute in the finite world. I begin, then, with the 'pre-history' of Schelling's philosophy of art, by tracing the development of the philosophical problems in which artistic activity is his solution.

In the first chapter, I show how Schelling begins to outline the relationship between freedom, nature and art in his Philosophical Letters on Dogmatism and Criticism of He manages to mediate between several of the most important intellectual debates of his time, in ten short letters, written to a fictional Spinozist, who may have been based on his friend Friedrich H6lderlin. There, Schelling defends critical philosophy as a superior system of philosophy over Spinozist dogmatism, a judgment that is determined through the way in which each system interprets the relationship between the self and the world.

The dogmatist 4 I begin with the Letters because it contains an analysis of Greek tragedy in comparison to criticism and dogmatism. Schelling argues that tragedy exhibits the identity of freedom and necessity through the interplay of the protagonist acting freely and yet ultimately succumbing to the power of fate.

Despite his praise for Greek tragedy, which Schelling calls the highest of sublime representations of the human condition, he argues that it cannot not provide a model for a system of freedom. Instead, any attempt to forfeit the power of human freedom to the external world acts against the truth of practical philosophy. While not yet presenting a philosophy of art, the Letters anticipate some of Schelling's later philosophical concerns, to which the philosophy of art comprises the answer. In Chapter Two, I reconstruct Schelling's sketch of what he calls the "history of self- consciousness" from the Ideas for a Philosophy of Nature of and the Allgemeine Uebersicht der neuesten philosophischen Literatur or "Survey" , which was published in installments from in Immanuel Niethammer's and Fichte's, Philosophisches Journal.

The 'history of consciousness' is Schelling's attempt to develop a critical idealism that could demonstrate how self-consciousness arises within nature and within human history, that is, how self-consciousness progressively overcomes its previous limitations through its interaction with nature and history. Thus, on the one hand, Schelling develops this system ideally in the "Survey," and on the other, he proposes a nature-philosophy in the Ideas that outlines a real natural doctrine of the mind. The purpose of both is to show how a completed system of critical idealism could reconcile the differences that marked humanity's 'modern condition,' and the philosophical assumptions that separated humans from nature, 5 As this history of consciousness develops, I argue, it appears, in vague outline, that both systems, of idealism and nature-philosophy, require a third to resolve their contradictions.

This third part of philosophy is a philosophy of art. The chapter closes with a reading of the "Alteste Systemprogramm des deutschen Idealismus," a dense fragment that argues that beauty, poesy and a mythology of reason are the highest realizations of philosophy. These are all features that, whether Schelling was the author or not, will reappear in his philosophy of art. I argue that the introduction of the philosophy of art should be read as a subversion of Fichte's emphasis on practical reason.

Schelling philosophy

So, where Fichte grounds his system in the self s free activity, Schelling now argues that the true realization of human activity is in the work of art, which is objectively produced. Where freedom- as conceived as an infinite approximation of the moral law- can only strive toward its object, artistic activity is grounded in the identity of freedom and necessity, when it produces the inner harmony and beauty of a work of art. Thus artistic production, through genius, is an activity that is 'more free than freedom itself,' a kind of ethos that produces according to its own laws.

In addition, I also show that all three conditions, listed above, are established in the System of Transcendental Idealism. While it is the first systematic presentation of Schelling's philosophy of art, it is not his last. Therefore, in the first half of Chapter Four, I demonstrate that all of these conditions obtain in Schelling's Philosophy of Art, which was written and delivered as lectures during the period of his system of absolute idealism or 'system of identity. Furthermore, it is in detailing the task of a new mythology that we discover that Schelling's absolute idealism encounters a contradiction that it cannot resolve, a contradiction between substance the first principle of the system and history the mythological revelation of its content.

This occurs because Schelling holds that the first principle of the system of identity is an eternal and infinite substance, an identity of form and content, while at the same time presenting a historical construction of art that presents a series of divine revelations within history. This series begins with Greek mythology and leads to Christian revelation, in which Christ is revealed as the closure of antiquity and the origin of the modern era.

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The Philosophy of Art results in the following dilemma: either retain the first principle, and reduce the historical revelation to mere appearances contradicting the infinite quality of the gods, and the Christian God , or maintain the historical revelation of Greek and Christian mythology, and abandon the immutable and eternal Spinozist substance. Schelling will attempt to grapple with the problem of history within the system of identity until , in his address to the Akademie der Wissenschaft in Munich. In the Vber das Verhdltnis der bildenden Ktinste zu der Natur, Schelling departs from the system of absolute idealism and turns to a system of historical revelation that anticipates his later philosophy of freedom that begins in In Chapter Five I argue that this often neglected text deserves a more attention because, at the turning point between the philosophy of art and the philosophy of freedom, Schelling proposes a singular account of an ethos that unifies the true, the good and the beautiful through artistic production.

Artistic activity reveals the true, because art reproduces the history of natural production itself, as it reveals the divine in humanity; it reveals the good, because artistic production presents an ethic of moderating the 7 Schelling invokes this ethos to call for a renewal of art within the public sphere, which would express the essence of the German people on the stage of history. Yet if Uber das Verhdltnis der bildenden Ktinste zu der Natur presents such a singular ethos, it is important to search for the reasons why Schelling abandons his philosophy of art.

Therefore the last chapter also traces the end of the philosophy of art to Schelling's shift toward a philosophy of freedom and his interest in the relationship between freedom, revelation, and theology. This shift leads to the Stuttgart Seminars, where I argue that Schelling's orientation turns from a hopeful future of humanity, to an account of the distant past of humanity's Fall.

While Schelling develops the Fall and its consequences as a historical narrative, his focus turns to Christian revelation, the figure of Christ and the idea of human freedom as positive capacity for good or evil. In this account, Schelling diminishes the role of art to the production of a work based either in the artist's individuality, or as a work of nostalgia for a lost connection to nature. Schelling elevates human freedom to the pinnacle of the system when he finally surpasses its conception as an activity that approximates the moral law; in the Philosophical Investigations into the Essence ofHuman Freedom of , and the Stuttgart Seminars a year later, freedom is rethought as a positive, ecstatic act of inner law-giving, which is realized as virtue.

After showing how Schelling returns to the primacy of freedom, albeit through both the criticism of Kant, Fichte, and his own previous work, I close this study by evaluating the political implications of Schelling's call for a new mythology and renewal of art.

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I argue that 8 It is remarkable that, long after Schelling had given up on the political and social effects of art, both visions, one revolutionary and the other conservative, have resonated through the 19th and 20th centuries: the idea that a new mythology can, and should, express the essence of a people, nation or community, had a long history, while the revolutionary and Utopian conception of artistic production re-emerges in the avant-gardes of the 20th century, and still inspires philosophical debate in the 21st.

Chapter 1 Dogmatism, Criticism and Art 1. The Primacy of Freedom Although Schelling's System of Transcendental Idealism is the first systematic account of his art-philosophy, he first proposes art- namely the content of Greek tragedy- as a solution to the philosophical problem of freedom in the Philosophical Letters on Dogmatism and Criticism With the inclusion of a discussion of art, Schelling also considers the relationship between philosophy and the concerns of authors associated with the Sturm und Drang, and his friend Friedrich Holderlin.

In this chapter I focus on the relationship between philosophy and art in the Letters, and more precisely on the relation between the practical subject, the world and art. I will argue that Schelling's emphasis on practical reason prevents him from proposing Greek tragedy as a model of action. According to Schelling, post-Kantian philosophy demands that 1 All references to Schelling's work in the text of this chapter provide the page number found in Fritz Marti's translations found in The Unconditional in Human Knowledge.

If we attach a philosopher's name to each position, we can say, Fichte or Spinoza. Yet, as I will show, Schelling proposes this opposition in order to defend what he saw as the spirit of Fichte's critical idealism, even as he departs from the letter. It is Schelling's defense of the practical aspects of Fichte's philosophy that prevents him from proposing tragedy as a system of action. Before showing how this conflict between criticism and dogmatism unfolds in the Letters, we will address how Schelling came to oppose Fichte to Spinoza.

Although he had already written a dissertation and published2 by the time he encountered Fichte if not personally during the latter's visits to Tubingen in June and May ,3 then at least in writing , Fichte's work proved to be a decisive influence on the young Schelling's thought. By his second visit, Fichte had produced an outline of a systematic unification of theoretical and practical philosophy in his Concerning the Concept of the Wissenschaftslehre. This self-positing is the act whereby the subject recognizes the unity of consciousness and him or herself asfreelyacting.

The act need not be the first temporal act of a subject, but, as we will see below, the recognition of the practical demand to act as if one's freedom were unconditional. The excitement around 2 These texts are on the origin of evil, and mythology, respectively: Deprima malorum humanorum origine philosophematis Gen. HI expliccmdi tentamen criticum etphilosophicum, and Uber Mythen, historische Sagen und Philosopheme der dltesten Welt. For convenience, I will refer to the Grundlage der gesamten Wissenschaftslehre by the title provided by the translators of the English edition, Science ofKnowledge.

While the Letters are a defense of criticism's emphasis on freedom and practical action, Schelling recasts dogmatism as a practical system of philosophy, noting, for instance, that Spinoza had entitled his magnum opus the Ethics. Like many of his contemporaries, such as his former classmates Hegel and HSlderlin, and others such as Friedrich Schlegel and- above all- Goethe, Schelling was a serious reader of Spinoza. The resurgence of interest in Spinoza was the result of the Pantheism Controversy, which was ignited by the publication of Jacobi's Concerning the Doctrine of Spinoza in Letters to Herr Moses Mendelssohn in The book opens in a dramatic fashion by disclosing an avowal by G.

Lessing- a prominent figure of the German Enlightenment- of Spinozism, which at the time referred to some combination of fatalism, atheism and materialism. Yet the stakes of Jacobi's book are philosophical: the conversations develop Jacobi's charge that all philosophical demonstration, if consistent, leads to Spinozism. Any consistent philosophy, according to Jacobi, is atheist because it can only provide proofs of a God immanent to the world, which is a disguised materialism, and fatalist because a complete system precludes the possibility of freedom and morality.

By contrast, Jacobi offers a theory of knowledge and practice grounded in revelation and faith in a personal God. While once Spinoza had been considered a "dead dog" Lessing's words , Jacobi's polemic backfired, inspiring an entire generation of German philosophers to read the former heretic. Though Kant claimed not to understand Spinoza, and Fichte subordinated Spinozist 12 Yet, after establishing this rivalry, and after arguing that dogmatism could be refuted neither theoretically nor practically, Schelling sets out to refute it in both domains.

Criticism ultimately demonstrates its practical superiority in its use of the principle of intellectual intuition. Intellectual intuition is introduced by Schelling to answer Jacobi's demand for an immediate intuition into the supersensuous world and as a name for Fichte's absolute I. Criticism proves itself superior to its rival by both preventing this intuition from being hypostatized as a thing-in-itself, as it is by dogmatism, and by interpreting this intuition as a regulative ideal for practical action. This opposition between criticism and dogmatism ultimately allows for the confirmation of freedom through the choice of two systems.

As we will see, when Schelling claims that these two systems are coordinate rivals, he departs from the letter of Fichte's and despite his own claims to the contrary Kant's works. The Letters make a significant departure from Fichte by arguing for an absolute that is beyond either the subject or object, implying a higher standpoint than Fichte's absolute subject.

However, at this point Schelling still argues for the primacy of criticism because it recognizes the regulative status of the absolute for the practical subject. The ambiguity over the absolute in the Letters allowed for different readings of the text: Holderlin found an important departure from Schelling's previous convictions, while Fichte saw no reason to publicly break with his younger ally this ambiguity underlies both Schelling's claim that the Letters were the first presentation of absolute idealism see Chapter 4 , and then, decades later, his claim that the Letters were the 13 There has been a recent trend in the secondary literature to find in the Letters a philosophy of tragedy that overcomes the limitations of both criticism and dogmatism.

Hence while he recognizes that the drama of Greek tragedy presents the absolute identity of freedom and necessity in the free struggle of the mortal hero against fate, Schelling prohibits its use as a model for a system of action, because the struggle presented in tragedy always results in the hero's defeat through fate. It is, he says, in the interest of practical reason to expose any attempt to place the creative powers of the self, which should be realized in freedom, in the objective world. Although Greek tragedy presents the highest standard of art, Schelling argues that critical philosophy demonstrates the standard for practical action through freedom.

The Pantheism Controversy Before turning to Fichte's Wissenschaftslehre, we will begin with a discussion of Jacobi's role in the Pantheism Controversy. We will return to these recent commentaries below. See especially Theodore D. Jason M. Although proceeding by different paths, both Kant and Jacobi attacked the dogmatism of Leibnizian-Wolffian philosophy. While Kant utilized refined philosophical criticism to question the domain and application of synthetic a priori judgments, Jacobi very bluntly accused all theoretical philosophy of both atheism and being inimical to practical action.

While Kant separated the noumenal and phenomenal worlds, demolishing the speculative proofs for the soul, freedom and God in order to open the possibility of their application for practical action, Jacobi opposed faith and revelation to all theoretical demonstration. By identifying the common target of Kant and Jacobi and the emphasis on the practical found in both in Jacobi's case, blatantly, and with Kant, hinted at in the first Critique and made more explicit in the Critique of Practical Reason , it becomes possible to find the guiding thread between Jacobi, Fichte and Schelling, in their emphasis on practical action over theoretical reason.

In retrospect, the crucial differences concerning the role of theoretical reason between Jacobi and these critical philosophers are more than obvious, especially in light of Jacobi's intervention in the Atheism Controversy of , which cost Fichte his professorship at Jena, and the later polemic against Schelling, Von den Gottlichen 7 For the historical,details see Frederick C.

Dale E. Fichte, while acknowledging the difference between his transcendental idealism and Jacobi's realism, sought the latter's approval by attributing a common commitment- to emphasizing the practical and moral character of human being- to both sides. And it seems that for a time Jacobi also appreciated their work. In a letter to Jens Baggesen from , Jacobi writes: Fichte and Schelling are now referring ever morefrequently,extensively and emphatically to my writings, and in all the works of the latter one can see how he has given them [e. Jacobi's writings] flesh and blood For my part I must try and see if perhaps these men have succeeded in understanding me better than I do myself, and if I might not-through them-learn something better from myself than I knew I was teaching, which would in no way be impossible.

And as I will argue, they are attacking a common enemy: the dogmatism of Leibniz, Wolff, and Spinoza, until Schelling attempts to positively incorporate Spinozism into his system of philosophy. However, unlike Jacobi, Fichte and Schelling go to great lengths to defend the importance of theoretical reason. Though the Doctrine of Spinoza begins with a biographical account of Lessing's discussions with Jacobi, the stakes of the book are philosophical. Jacobi makes it clear that the "principle issue" is the doctrine of Spinoza, which, as his dialogue with Lessing reveals very early on, is the highest Lessing , or at least the most consistent Jacobi expression of philosophy.

Jacobi summarizes his argument against philosophy as such: 1. Spinoza is atheism. The philosophy of the cabbala [ The Leibnizian-Wolffian philosophy is no less fatalistic than the Spinozist philosophy and leads the persistent researcher back to the principles of the latter. Every avenue of [philosophical] demonstration ends up in fatalism. We can only demonstrate similarities. Every proof presupposes something already proven, the principle of which is Revelation.

Faith is the element of all human cognition and activity. At issue is Jacobi's understanding of the principle of sufficient reason: that each condition comes about through a necessary set of previous conditions. Hereafter Doctrine ofSpinoza. Therefore, an argument for a God immanent to the world the Spinozist ''Hen kai pari , according to Jacobi, cannot be for a personal God; instead, it must be, if consistent, an argument for 'pantheist' naturalism i.

Lessing, according to Jacobi, espouses this naturalism when he "insisted on having everything addressed to him in natural terms," while Jacobi stressed "that there cannot be any natural philosophy of the supernatural. After arguing that Spinozism and faith and revelation are incompatible, Jacobi accuses all modern philosophy including Leibniz and Wolff of fatalism and atheism, due to its reliance on the principle of sufficient reason.

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This was a damning criticism in 18 century Germany. By connecting Leibniz to Spinoza, Jacobi implies that, at the heart of the German Enlightenment, there is a fundamental misrecognition: it is one thing to claim that the ever-difficult and -heretical work of Spinoza is fatalistic, and it is another thing to claim that Lessing casually acknowledged that the metaphysical foundations of Enlightenment philosophy were, all 13 Jacobi, Doctrine ofSpinoza, The challenge for critical philosophy after the Pantheism Controversy was to develop a theoretical philosophy compatible with freedom.

Fichte and the young Schelling attempted to show that practical reason and theoretical reason were compatible by grounding both in the action of the self-positing subject. In contrast to Spinoza and, as he will claim, all theoretical reason Jacobi offers an account of moral action grounded on faith and revelation. For Jacobi, human cognition is grounded through an immediate experience of certainty, "which not only needs no proof, but excludes all proofs absolutely"17 it is this demand for an immediate ground that Schelling attempts to incorporate into critical philosophy.

As Jacobi states, the original, immediate certainty reveals an I and a Thou that is God , a revelation that grounds all other experiences. Through faith, one comes to know that first, one has a body which can be experienced, and second, there are other actual beings. His position, then, conflates the experience of things the sensible with divine revelation the supersensible through a loose use of the term faith: both the experience of things and of revelation rely on the original experience of immediate certainty. Finally, later in the text, Jacobi adds a historicist or relativistic dimension to his argument.

George di Giovanni goes to great lengths to both deny charges of irrationalism against Jacobi, and to show how Jacobi made great strides towards an "unfinished philosophy" of "historical reason. Frederick C. Beiser argues that Jacobi endorses relativism by rejecting the Enlightenment belief in objective inquiry. Though others, such as Hume and Helvetius, held that interests and desires governed practical action, Jacobi extends the priority of the will over 19 As it turns out, history cannot be a medium for reform, only faith and religion can.

A truly relativistic position would require that the concepts or experiences of faith and revelation would also be subject to the contingencies of history, that Jacobi's own position is also a product of his time. However, Jacobi does not allow this possibility: instead, his digression on historical circumstances ends in an overwrought defense of "rectitude, patriotism, love of mankind [and] fear of the Lord"21 against the moral lassitude of his age. Jacobi's apparent relativism is limited by religion: "from time immemorial all the nations" have held the conviction that religion is the only means for moral education and reform.

In the wake of the Doctrine of Spinoza, Schelling struggled to demonstrate the compatibility and ultimate unity of philosophy as a practice andfreedom. Hence while Jacobi strictly rejects theoretical reason as the ground of practice in favor of faith, Schelling- initially following Fichte— argues that practical reason reason "in a new and dangerous direction": to the domain of theory.

Your chance to learn and use German. And another hint: A lot of Germans me included like to use their English. And a lot think it kind and helpful if they talk in English to you to make it easier - not thinking that that is exactly what makes your advance in our language a lot slower and harder. Tell them you want to learn and speak German.

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Talk to them in German - even if they keep going on in English. And maybe every once in a while to untwist your brain and tongue in a language you know! Wishing you and your German the best. Comment you're going to have a hell of a good time!! I'd suggest not taking advertisements and TV all too seriously, where, in spite of there being a latent anti-Americanism in society at large considering Iraq, not really surprising Brits and others all went through phases like this - the Brits for instance had a craze of using real and invented Latin words that would have Cicero turning in his grave.

Comment If you want to speak "contemporary" german there is no way to avoid using some english words. Unlike the french we didn't feel like translating walkman etc. There are a lot of older people who are pretty annoyed by english used more and more. But thats just the way the language evolves. Try to read good books or good magazines and watch good programmes besides Viva and MTV. You should find a good deal of proper german there. Last but not least you should not confuse anti-Americanism with the european discontent with bush.

We just can't imagine why one would vote for bush he wouldn't have made it to anything more than a regional position in Germany just to the reason his father was president and people suspecting old connections to be worked etc. This again should not imply we can't deal or don't want to deal with people who voted for him. Maybe some had very good reasons we are just not aware of because we are living far away and have a completly different view.

So long and enjoy your stay in Germany. If so, it would be really nice to see you on one of our "Stammtisch" evenings downtown. Comment Why does this link not work?

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Comment odondon: send me a mail leibold at in dot tum dot de and I'll sign you up for the mailing list if you want or send you an advance mail for the next meet-up on 7 December Comment Joe: The "anti-americanism" is just thorough dissatisfaction with the US government, that doesn't mean american films, videos and music are not still high on the list.

Ignore advertising "English", its about as English as my Chinese I don't know any. If you look trough the General Discussions, you will find a lot of ad-phrases dicussed. Talk German, and where people are using English sounding words, ask stupid questions till you can be sure what they are talking about. If you are in an exchange programm, you are probably still at school? Comment Joe: Welcome to Europe and Germany. The influx of English words and americanisms started after the end of the second world war, when the "Amis", as we call you, and the "Tommies", as we called the Brits, occupied parts of Germany.

Jazz has always been very popular in D. Their influence, and that of other bands, was immense, similar to that of Napoleon when he did his Tour of Europe, about years ago So, enjoy your stay as you surely will and just start chatting in German. Oh, before I forget: Ask questions. There are no stupid questions, only stupid answers Comment Sorry to differ with so many of you friendly Germans, but as a dissapointed US citizen, I just have to say that George Bush is not the only problem with America. This is a disturbing fact and may have dire consequences for some time to come. I have good friends who voted for him, friends who read the New York Times.

Don't ask me why they voted for Bush. Their arguments were often rhetorically simple although they are highly intelligent individuals. Who knows. Joe, you will encounter anti-Americanism here, but not from everyone and if you do it will often be based on well-founded arguments something I've missed from a number of my fellow Americans recently.

Comment I think commercials or the labels on consumer goods are not representative here -- they use many more English words than German people usually do in everyday speech. Generally the reason is that most people find it ridiculous to invent new German names for new things or concepts. Sometimes they find something appropriate e. Festplatte , sometimes they don't e. No idea why, it's just the way it is, and bothering won't help it. Unfortunately however, too many people use English words although there are fine German words available, e. That's a fact that annoys me, too. Re "anti-americanism": Five years ago, Germans looked at America with a mxture of contempt and admiration.


Bush managed to change this in only a couple of years, as today Germans look at it with a mixture of contempt and hate. For many decades, you could almost every day hear someone suggesting what Americans do better and how we could learn for them next to which they do worse of course , either firends or the media. These days you ONLY read what they do worse. I also think that many people used to blame Bush and his likes only, assuming that these were sort of extremistic. But since it became evident that Bush had a fair chance of being re-elected, most Germans deem the majority of Americans insane.

Someone acting as stupid as Bush could not even become the mayor of a whistle stop in Europe. I think the same applies to most European people, not merely Germans, and much of it probably to the rest of the world, too. Whenever I talk to friends and colleagues from UK, Spain or Poland, they all do not show the slightest bit of understanding how an economically powerful country can act so stupid in politics. Comment This is how our Country works: It is a democracy and the majority rules. Bush has won the elections fair and square.

By the Way, Kerry would not be mych different anyway. The US nd Europe are simply different: it is a fact we all have to accept. We do not to be the same to get along.

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  • Lillith a Bush supporter and voter. Comment Um eins mal vorwegzuschicken: Es liegt mir fern, Bush und seine Drahtzieher mit den Nazis zu vergleichen. Aber ich finde, dass es einige Parallelen zu den Entwicklungen in Deutschland in den 30er Jahren gibt. Sachargumente wurden stets mit dem Hinweis abgewiesen, dass es hier um mehr gehe. Ein Teufelskreis. Ich finde es interessant zu beobachten, dass dieses Konzept offensichtlich auch in der heutigen Zeit noch funktioniert, und ich kann nur beten, dass diese Entwicklung nicht irgendwann eskaliert.

    Comment Sophil: I understand what you are saying and I totally agree with you. What I was trying to say is please do not blame Bush for Amerika's foreign Policy: it does not change no matter who sits in the oval office. Kerry would do exactly the same: the USA are falling apart economically, socially, etc. The USA needs the war in order to find new markets and new people to exploit. The only difference between Bush and Kerry is that Bush is honest: he makes war to Irak and accepts full responsibility; Kerry on the other hand never said he would not make war to Irak.

    He just wanted the Europeans to pay for it. But after all of Bush's lies about weapons of mass destruction and that Saddam would have been collaboratng with Al Qaida, I do not think the attribute "honest" is appropriate in any way. Das ist die Wahl zwischen Pest und Cholera. Bushs Machtergreifung vor vier Jahren war m. Comment Joe: Welcome in Germany. Comment Joe: Another "Welcome to Germany to you. People use terms like "kick-off meetings" and "outsourcing" day in, day out, but ask them about the difference in using present perfect and past tense, they stare at you in bewilderment.

    I deal with English and German a lot every day and was trained to do so , and I really have a penchant for the English language. This is why this stupid, distorted, superfluous and often idiotic misuse of non-fitting English terms in German irks me so. What is wrong about the good old "Auskunft, Information" or something like that? Speak as much German as you can.

    Ich arbeite in englischsprachiger Umgebung, und habe dann schon mal Schwierigkeiten mit dem richtigen deutschen Wort. Ebooks

    Man wird ja verstanden. Im Deutschen kann ich aber nicht Besprechung sagen, wenn ich Konferenz meine, und andersum. Muss ja nicht stimmen, ich werde schon verstanden. Das kann man mit der eigenen Sprache eben nicht machen. Comment Hey, Joe Stevenson, are you still with us? I hope these lively discussions have not put you off. This is a really democratic forum as befits a really democratic country , where you are entitled to express your opinions, no matter how many people you hit on the head with them.

    One thing is for sure: You certainly will not lose your job or freedom here for expressssing your beliefs! I would be interested to read your comments perhaps even in German? Have a great time. Immer unterwegs in der City, beim Clubbing oder Flirten".